TEACHING-LEARNING PROCESS: Instructional Media & Technology, Dale’s Cone of Experience


The series of questions in this week’s module have been interestingly valuable to my current understanding of the concepts and other related terminologies.


First and foremost, the task on distinguishing instructional media and instructional technology has been thought-provoking.  In the past, my ideas on these two terms are quite vague.  Through the various readings and further research, I came to realize that instructional media and technology are connected to one another but shouldn’t be used interchangeably.  It’s noteworthy to mention that instructional media can be considered as a feature of instructional technology.  Within the development of instructional technology, various kinds of instructional media are selected within its domain.

Why do teachers have to use instructional media or materials in teaching?

This question led me to an in-depth understanding that instructional media/materials are not simply chosen for the sake of using resources in classroom instruction.  Mainly, these numerous instructional media can aid in attaining the instructional objectives set at the beginning of the course, and help in facilitating the students’ learning.

When instructional media are appropriately selected, these can facilitate the effective learning acquisition of the students.  These can uphold their active participation in the classroom tasks and activities.   These may further enhance their comprehension of the subject matter when, of course, chosen and utilized appropriately. Years of teaching in the university level (Philippines), kindergarten and secondary (Thailand) classes have made me realize that creativity is one key factor in the utilization of these instructional media.  When creatively done, these will capture the students’ interest into the content material.

In connection, the reason for using instructional media directs to an important discussion on the proper selection and utilization.  Availability of the resources, learning outcomes, and environmental factors are just among the few to be considered when choosing the most feasible and applicable instructional media for effective teaching-learning process.

Relevance of Instructional Media and Materials to the Teaching-Learning Process

Appropriate selection of instructional media can improve the quality of teaching and learning.  It can help facilitate an effective teaching based on the learning objectives.  As appropriate instructional media are chosen in the delivery of the course content, students will be guided to improve their learning, performance rate and achievement.

Whether traditional or newer instructional media/materials, these are indeed relevant to the process of teaching and learning.  Most notably, teachers also have to take into consideration the students’ learning styles and preferences.  Their learning characteristics will also help determine what and how to use them effectively in instruction.

DALE’S CONE OF EXPERIENCE: Interpretation, Implication to the Teaching-Learning Process , and Application to Actual Teaching

In my undergraduate years, I often encountered and heard the concept of “learning by doing”.  Actually, I don’t seem to recall if any of my undergraduate courses had a thorough discussion about Edgar Dale’s Cone of Experience.  Through this module, I was reintroduced to the concept of experiential learning which has a great significance to teaching.

Since the students’ learning experiences are deemed to be likely influenced and strengthened when they are actively involved in the learning process, teachers also have to appropriately choose the learning approaches and strategies.  Students have to consistently demonstrate an active participation because it will significantly contribute to increasing the retention of information.

It’s essential to avoid misconceptions in the interpretation of Dale’s Cone of Experience.  Although it clearly signifies that students’ learn effectively via experiential learning, it doesn’t mean that teachers will disregard all other types of experiences.  In fact, I think, Edgar Dale simply wants to emphasize the importance of experiential learning.  As such, there should be a balance between concepts, and activities which are representations in the real context.  Instructional methods should be in congruence with the instructional objectives.  Classroom activities based on real-life context will positively contribute to the students’ in-depth understanding of the subject matter.

This theory implies that teachers need to consider exposure and engagement in real-life situations.  Hands-on experience should follow after introducing the concepts, theories, and significant details.  This way, students could be able to build a connection between the abstract and concrete experiences.  Perhaps it’s notable to say: teachers have to consider concepts/theories vis-à-vis experiential learning.

As to the actual teaching, varieties of activities have to be in place for careful selection depending on the students’ learning interests and characteristics.  These activities, when carefully chosen, will enhance the students’ learning.  With Dale’s theory, teachers can incorporate various learning experiences through creating a structure of the lesson.  Thus, this is to maximize the students’ learning potential.


11 responses to “TEACHING-LEARNING PROCESS: Instructional Media & Technology, Dale’s Cone of Experience

  1. Of course the teaching strategy of a teacher may depend on the students he/she is handling (since students are diverse). Anyway, do you have any guidelines in doing appropriate instructional materials? thanks

  2. Thank you. You are resourceful.

  3. JOHN 3:16

  4. what a marvelous piece of writing

  5. what a marvelous writing

  6. sofia d. tumambing

    asking permission to use your material as my addt’l reference in teaching IM to my students. Thanx a lot in advance. sofie

  7. Pingback: TEACHING-LEARNING PROCESS: Instructional Media & Technology, Dale’s Cone of Experience | Buzz and Gossip

  8. ii applaud ur contributions remain blessed

  9. I AGREE;)

  10. For my self i agree to u are explanations

  11. I agree with you regarding avoiding misconceptions about Dale’s Cone of Learning. I mentioned it in my post too that just because reading only allows us to retain 10% doesn’t mean we don’t read.
    You may want to check it out. (Thanks for your comment last time!)


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